The ideology of free Cossack movement lived in the Cossack hearts at all times. It was in them, and when the Cossacks were forced to put up with the spread on their land Moscow authorities kings; and when their territory became part of Imperial Russia. This ideology fed on the memory of the former independence of the Cossacks: the consciousness of his ethnicity and household isolation, a desire to allow the emerging socio-political issues of free will of the Cossacks, the desire to freely elect their leaders a majority vote of those present at the Circus of the Cossacks. In short, to live according to the customs of his Cossack ancestors with strict compliance with the traditions of the Cossack democracy - "by right of ancient ordinariness."
As soon as 1917. Russia had overthrown the autocracy, the ideology of free Cossack movement emerged in the immediate revival of the ancient Cossack narodopravstva. The two largest Cossack region - the Don and Kuban troops - were proclaimed independent states that in two years of heroic resistance resisted more numerous armed forces on a vast territory and rich human resources of the Soviet Russia.
The Free Cossack movement took the form of organized political activity based on the conviction that the Cossacks are not fluent-servile origin, and have their origin from the specific national roots. Because of this, they must have a natural right, not only on the independent cultural development, but also on the political independence in an independent country, which is to unite the earth all living on the European part of Russian Cossacks and the Cossacks call.
From the first Russian historians remembered Don Cossacks Popov. His "History of the Don Cossacks", passing all tests censorship, was published in 1814. . In this book, on page 111 it says: "We see, that this army of ancient times was called the Don Cossacks, and their land - the Cossacks, because in Persian Cossack means Skif". That is why supporters of the Free Cossack ideology preached the revival of the united states Cossack - Cossack, including its boundaries and the area of the later spread of the Cossacks on the rivers Volga and the Urals.
However, the combined Cossack state - Kazakia - was not revived or created. But the decision of the Supreme Circle of the Don, Kuban and Terek from January 9, 1920 Cossack Federation has been issued. However, it lasted a short time, but this fact did take place. In the spring 1920 the Cossack Federation territory was occupied by Soviet troops. As the Soviet reference books, "Taking into account the wishes of the working Cossacks, the Soviet government introduced in the Cossack areas authorities provided by the Constitution of the RSFSR (the decree of 25 March 1920), and distributed to them general provisions on land management and land use (1920)." Thus, the Cossacks as a class in Soviet Russia has ceased to exist.
In exile, the Cossack national idea emerged with renewed vigor. In the capital of the Czech Republic - Prague emerged initiative group decided to "organize a movement to consolidate the idea of a single Cossack state - Kazakia - and prepare its implementation by an organized propaganda." As part of the initiative group included: member of the Presidium of the Supreme Circle and historian, Gen. JF Bykadorov; a member of the Don Host Krug, and the commander of the Cossack Corps, General TM Starikov; member of the Supreme Rada of the Kuban and the Circle IA Bily; Colonel and engineer I. Kolesov, esaul MF Frolov; Dr. IP Viflyantsev; student VG Glazkov. They decided to establish their movement called the Free Cossack.
In foreign countries the idea of the Free Cossack movement has found sympathy even among the ruling circles of some countries. For example, Poland has provided the organizers of the movement means for the publication of the Cossack national organ. The first issue of "Free Cossacks - Vilnius Kozatstvo" edited by MF Frolova and IA Bilogo came in Prague December 10, 1927. This journal was considered a militant organ of the Free Cossack movement was met with great sympathy by certain circles of the Cossack emigration, which were not so already and narrow.
The new edition was lively and talented preaching the ideas that have been hidden from the public, as stored in the depths of the Cossack shower. These ideas have found support among Cossack emigration and, in many cases, taken as a revelation from above. In various parts of the world where there were scattered around the world of the Russian Cossacks, began to emerge and multiply separating the Free Cossack movement.
But supporters of a united and indivisible Russia also on alert: the idea of "free Cossacks" are perceived as anti-imperial activities and led them offensive. "United Russia" of that period did not disdain to various kinds of provocations and violence, as well as for combating "free Cossacks their own strength is not enough, then they asked for help from the police agents of the countries on whose territory they were his work separating the Free Cossack movement. This pressure on the Cossack organizations yielded results from the Free Cossack movement dropped out weak in spirit, it appeared decadent mood, began internal divisions. Inside, there was a movement, even the opposition, which is January 11, 1934 has created its own "Central Board of the Free Cossacks - Cossacks-nationalists." The opposition that began to publish its own magazine - "Cossack" - and led work to attract to its ranks of an increasing number of supporters from among the members of the Free Cossack movement.
How all this is similar to the current state of the movement for the revival of the Cossacks! Is not it? Instead of a united front to lead the offensive to those in power, for which the Cossacks at all times was like a bone in the throat, artificially inflated by internal divisions of the second and third-rate issues. Once upon a time they could not find a common language and Cossacks thrifty golutvennye, then - white and red, and now - and the public registry, and God knows what else ...
Between them all reconciled only old Death that orderly packed all can appease a foreign land to Cossack areas perfectly manicured cemeteries very far abroad, and rest in the limits of our Motherland - the often neglected churchyards their native towns and villages. The last of the representatives of the White Cossack emigration Nikolai Fedorov, who lived in Novocherkassk and studied in Platovskaya classic men's gymnasium - rested in a foreign country at the age of nearly 102 years old September 26, 2003 and was buried in the Cossack section of St. Vladimir's Cemetery in Kesville (state New Jersey, USA).
Nearly four decades of his life N. Fedorov was Ataman of the Don Cossacks in foreign countries, the chairman of the Triple Alliance of the Don Cossacks of the Kuban and Terek, honorary chairman of the Russian All-Military Union (EMRO). Under his leadership, the magazine published "Ataman Gazette", but in recent years its existence edition it is unlikely to be called a body of Cossack organizations.
Successor NV Fedorova at the post of Ataman of the Don Cossacks in foreign countries - JL Mikheev - was elected to this post December 15, 2003. Time will tell whether it will become a consolidating figure for scattered across many countries and continents (Europe, North America, Australia), few have Cossack local associations and organizations whose primary purpose has long been not a struggle for one or another direction arduous Cossack way, and the preservation of at least some signs of their Cossack accessories in the stormy ocean of globalization of the modern world.
AUTHOR: N. Cherkasov